Jerash is the site of the ruins of the Greco-Roman city of Gerasa
, also referred to as Antioch on the Golden River
.Ancient Greek inscriptions from the city, but also literary sources both Iamvichou
and the Great Etymology
establishing the foundation of the city by Alexander the Great, or his general Perdiccas who settled there aged Macedonian soldiers(Γερασμένος-Gerasmenos means aged person in Greek). This will take place during the spring of 331 BC, when Alexander left Egypt, cross Syria and then went to Mesopotamia. It is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the "Pompeii
of the Middle East or Asia", referring to its size, extent of excavation and level of preservation (though Jerash was never buried by a volcano). Jerash is considered one of the most important and best preserved Roman
cities in the Near East
. It was a city
of the Decapolis
Jerash was the birthplace of the mathematician Nicomachus
of Gerasa (Greek
: Νικόμαχος) (c. 60 – c. 120 AD).
Recent excavations show that Jerash was already inhabited during the Bronze Age
(3200 BC - 1200 BC). After the Roman conquest in 63 BC, Jerash and the land surrounding it were annexed by the Roman province
, and later joined the Decapolis cities. In AD 90, Jerash was absorbed into the Roman province of Arabia
, which included the city of Philadelphia (modern day Amman
). The Romans ensured security and peace in this area, which enabled its people to devote their efforts and time to economic development and encouraged civic building activity.
In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city of Jerash achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan
constructed roads throughout the province and more trade came to Jerash. The Emperor Hadrian
visited Jerash in AD 129-130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit. A remarkable Latin inscription records a religious dedication set up by members of the imperial mounted bodyguard wintering there.
The city finally reached a size of about 800,000 square meters within its walls. The Persian
invasion in AD 614 caused the rapid decline of Jerash. However, the city continued to flourish during the Umayyad
Period, as shown by recent excavations. In AD 749, a major earthquake destroyed much of Jerash and its surroundings. During the period of the Crusades, some of the monuments were converted to fortresses, including the Temple of Artemis
. Small settlements continued in Jerash during the Ayyubid
periods. Excavation and restoration of Jerash has been almost continuous since the 1920s.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerash
© Henk Bos. Any use of this image without permission is a violation of the copyright.